Women Working

Our Pretty Doctor
Source: Gerald Du Maurier, 1870, Wellcome Collection via Europeana, L0004377 b1312142 Slide number 1872 ptvw27rk.

This article is the eight of an ongoing series from EUROCLIO and Europeana providing teachers with ideas and practical resources for teaching a range of topics in their classrooms. You can find a wealth of additional resources including units, source collections and eLearning activities on the Historiana website and you can read the other articles in the series on labs.historiana.eu.

Source collection

The Historiana source collection Women Working brings together a variety of visual sources from the 19th and 20th century, depicting women from all around the world. The collection gives an overview of the types of work women were generally doing in the past two hundred years. The bulk of the sources show women doing either agricultural labour, manufacturing work or washing clothes. The three sources that stand out from the rest are a photo of Marie Curie at work as a scientist and two cartoons from Punch Magazine, ridiculing women in medical professions.

The relatively large amount of sources in the collection enables you to look for differences and similarities at different times and in different cultures. One of the ways to approach this is to both look at what is depicted (topic) and how it is depicted (representation). The general impression these sources give is that women in the past mostly did lowbrow, manual labour. The few exceptions of women doing more highbrow work, like working as a doctor, are represented in a way that signals scepticism from either the maker of the source or from the intended public at the time. This is exactly what students will be looking at with this source collection, in both a qualitative and a quantitative way. The overarching question is how available source material from a certain period influences and shapes our perspective of that time, in this case how we currently perceive the role of women on in the economy in the 19th and 20th century.

Aims

The aims of this learning activity for the students are:

  • The student analyses several cartoons, determines the message the maker is trying to convey and derive the personal perspective of the maker from that.
  • The student analyses a set of visual sources, describing and drawing conclusions on the general impression the sources give.
  • The student reflects on the influence of available source material on the general perspective that exists on women working, both in the past and in the present and both in and outside of the Western World.

E-Learning Activity builder

This e-Learning Activity makes use of both the analysing tool and sorting tool from the Historiana e-Learning Activity builder.

The analysing tool is used in two sub-activities. In both cases students are asked to analyse a cartoon. The analysing tool enables them to look at a large version of one specific visual source. They can click and select any square portion of the source and make an annotation directly with that selection. In that way they can describe or comment on different elements of the source, for example on text elements (like the title or on text balloons), people (either characters or actual historical persons that are depicted) or symbolic visual elements (especially in cartoons or paintings with allegoric meanings).

The sorting tool is used with a background that is divided up in two equal parts by a vertical line in the middle. In this sub-activity students are asked to study a group of sources and to divide them first by region (Western versus non-Western) on both sides of the line. After that they are asked divide the sources on each side of the line into sub-categories by type of work, for example ‘agricultural’. The intention of this sub-activity is to give the students an overview of the types of work women around the world were generally depicted doing.

Learning Activity

The primary aim of this learning activity is to have students realise available sources shape our view of the past. During the activity they both look at individual sources on a qualitative level, as well as a group of sources and the impression they leave when presented together.

The first part of the activity consists of analysing two cartoons from Punch (a satirical magazine in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century). Students are asked to look at specific elements of the cartoons, for example the way women and men are portrayed, and to make annotations on the sources by using the analysing tool. After the analysis they are asked to comment on the impression these cartoons leave and to what extent they fit preconceptions the students have on the topic of women working. The conclusion here might be that women were not perceived equal to men up until quite recently and the fact that the cartoons mock women doing ‘intellectual work’ (as doctor or a dentist) fits the preconception of women being looked down upon by men in the past.

The second part of the activity asks students to study a group of sources from both the Western world and from outside the Western world. When sorted these sources can leave the impression that women all around the world mainly did agricultural work and ‘simple’ manufacturing, leaving the more complex tasks to men.

The final part of the activity takes a more ‘meta’ approach. Students are asked to reflect on how our perception of the past is shaped and how this perception influences our thoughts on women working in the present. The general idea is that because the source material abundantly shows women doing lowbrow work, combined with a few sources (cartoons) that ridicule women doing highbrow work, our assumption is that women had a lower socio-economic status in the 19th and well into the 20th century. This might even still be the case when looking at the position of women outside of the Western world today. This activity could be used as a lead-in to a class discussion on the construction of our views of the past and how sources are likely only to show or tell only part of what actually happened. You could challenge your students to be critical towards what sources present as ‘fact’ and have them look for nuance.

Conclusion

The e-learning activity Women Working makes use of the Historiana source collection of the same name. It makes use of both the analysing tool and the sorting tool of the E-Learning Activity builder. It’s aim is to have students think on the way the availability of source material shapes our views of the past. They get there by analysing both individual cartoons on women working in the 19th and 20th century, as well as looking at sources that are presented together in such a way that they leave a certain impression. Students are asked to reflect on their preconceptions in relation to women working in the past as well and to think on how historical perception influences their view on the topic in the present.

Acknowledgements

Historiana would not be possible without the efforts and generous contributions of historians and educators from Europe and beyondand the support of the Connecting Europe Facility of the European Union.

The Age of Synergies

Source: Interior of Edison’s Electric Lighting Station in New York in 1882, Date Unknown, Tekniska Museet via Europeana.

This article is the sixth of an ongoing series from EUROCLIO and Europeana providing teachers with ideas and practical resources for teaching a range of topics in their classrooms. You can find a wealth of additional resources including units, source collections and eLearning activities on the Historiana website and you can read the other articles in the series on labs.historiana.eu.

Europe at Work brings stories of our personal working lives together with archive material on industrial and labour-related heritage. Looking at our working lives, we can show students and learners that the working world we inhabit today is rich and varied, and tells the story of technological and societal changes over time. In this series, we look at how EUROCLIO is using industrial heritage material to create learning resources for educators on their Historiana portal.

Source collection

The Historiana source collection The Age of Synergies consists of sources on the Second Industrial Revolution, which took place somewhere between 1870 and 1914. During this time the use of steam power and the use of electricity, both fuelled by fossil fuels, lead to significant changes in, for example, production, communication and transportation. Those changes, in turn, lead to demographic developments and a general process of increasing globalisation.

The source collection in total revolves around the concept of cumulative causation, a theory developed by the economist Gunnar Myrdal in 1956. The general idea is that there is not one cause that leads to one or more consequences, but that there is an interplay between several important causes that not only coincide, but accelerate and increase each other. This concept of cumulative causation is the general idea around which this e-Learning Activity is built. Students will orient themselves on the different developments during the Second Industrial Revolution via the source collection and delve into the interrelation between the different causes and consequences to come up with a coherent narrative of the synergies during Second Industrial Revolution.

Aims

The aims of this learning activity for the students are:

  • The student describes the changes that took place during the Second Industrial Revolution.
  • The student explains the concept of cumulative causation.
  • The student describes the different causes and consequences of the Second Industrial Revolution.
  • The student explains the interrelation between the different processes of development that took place during the Second Industrial Revolution.

E-Learning Activity builder

This e-Learning Activity makes use of both the sorting tool (two times) and prioritizing tool from the Historiana e-Learning Activity builder in three sub-activities.

The first sub-activity allows students to orient themselves on the different sources and has them look for more direct and more indirect connections between them. At the heart of the sorting are the Second Industrial Revolution and the use of electricity. Students need to put sources with a direct relation to those in the inner circle, while they place sources with an indirect relation in the outer circle. This generates an overview, albeit partly subjective, of interconnectedness between the sources.

The second sub-activity makes use of the prioritizing tool and lets the students decide the significance of certain developments compared to other developments in the same period. They think on the significance by increasing or decreasing the size of sources, depending on how significant the development was those sources represent.

The third sub-activity makes use of the sorting tool again. This time the sources from the previous sub-activities have been presented on a blank background, enabling students to freely click them and move them around the screen, putting them together or sorting them in whichever way they deem meaningful. The sorting tool is really just plays a supporting role here, providing a canvas for students to discuss the sources and their different interrelations.

Learning Activity

The central aim of this learning activity is to help students discover the complex multi-causal relationships between different developments in a certain period. In this specific activity they look for so-called cumulative causation in the period of the Second Industrial Revolution.

In the first part of the activity the students use the sorting tool to relate different sources (which represent developments in that time like the upcoming use of electricity and changes in transport, communication and population) by looking for more direct and more indirect connections. For example: electricity directly leads to the invention of the electric motor (direct), which in turn led to changes in transportation (indirect). Students are asked to summarize their findings in a short paragraph.

In the second part students again look at the sources, now using the prioritizing tool to think on the significance of each development in relation to the others. The more significant a development is, the larger they can make it. Of course each decision needs to be thoroughly explained.

In the third and final part the students use the sorting tool again to take another look at the sources. They will need to make the connections between the different developments so they form a coherent narrative of the cumulative causation that took place during the Second Industrial Revolution. As a teacher you could go ‘meta’ in this part of the learning activity as well, by discussing the complex and constructivist nature of history as a science.

Conclusion

The e-learning activity The Age of Synergies incorporates the Historiana source collection of the same name. Both the sorting tool and the prioritizing tool of the E-Learning Activity builder are used.

The main aim of the learning activity is to have students realise that history often consists of a complex interplay of different causes and consequences. In the learning activity students explore the Second Industrial Revolution (‘The Age of Synergies’), looking at the different developments, like the upcoming use of electricity and increases in communication and transportation. The theory of cumulative causation (Myrdal, 1956) takes central stage in the latter part of the activity, in which the students describe the interrelations between the developments in the Second Industrial Revolution.

On a side-note: while this is a stand-alone learning activity, it can be used in conjunction with both The Subterranean Forest learning activity and the Energy in the pre-industrial world activity. The activity is a direct chronological follow-up on The Subterranean Forest, that mainly focusses on the (First) Industrial Revolution. The Energy in the pre-industrial world activity precedes both other activities, so it would come first chronological. A major difference between The Age of Synergies and the other two is that this activity mainly focusses on cause and consequence and complexity in history, while the other put emphasis on the link between past, present and future. The activities The Subterranean Forest and Energy in the pre-industrial world are fully described in different blog-posts.

Acknowledgements

Historiana would not be possible without the efforts and generous contributions of historians and educators from Europe and beyond, and the support of the Connecting Europe Facility of the European Union.

Energy in the pre-industrial world

Domestication of animals
Source: Fragment of a relief. Two men with a bull, 5-6th Dynasty (c.2513-c.2191 BC), Old Kingdom Egypt, Medelhavsmuseet, Identifier: http://kulturarvsdata.se/SMVK-MM/Egypt/3016015 MME 1990:004 1

This article is the fifth of an ongoing series from EUROCLIO and Europeana providing teachers with ideas and practical resources for teaching a range of topics in their classrooms. You can find a wealth of additional resources including units, source collections and eLearning activities on the Historiana website and you can read the other articles in the series on labs.historiana.eu .

The Historiana source collection Energy in the pre-industrial world explores the impact that an increasing amount of available energy had on the development of human kind. Developments like harnessing fire, water and wind, as well as the domestication of plants and animals made it possible to sustain more and more people. The population growth was a gradual process over time, tempered by the so-called ‘checks’ each time the population hit the Malthusian Ceiling.

The population growth accelerated significantly when more energy sources were, literally, unearthed during the Industrial Revolution, changing the way we perceive growth of society and availability energy forever… or did it? The source collection represents the way people have been using energy since the time of hunter-gatherers. In this learning activity students will delve into the different sources of energy in the pre-industrial world, which were arguably more sustainable, and think on possibilities and implications of energy use in the modern world.

Aims

The aims of this learning activity for the students are:

  • The student describes the most important sources of energy in the pre-industrial world.
  • The student explains the Malthusian Ceiling and what fire, domestication and natural energy sources like water and wind did to raise that ceiling.
  • The student discusses the significance of the Industrial Revolution in the development of energy use within society.
  • The student discusses to what extent it would be possible to maintain our current lifestyle when relying on pre-industrial energy sources.

E-Learning Activity builder

This e-Learning Activity makes use of both the sorting tool (four times) and prioritizing tool from the Historiana e-Learning Activity builder in four sub-activities.

The first time the sorting tool is used, it is merely to give students the opportunity to study a certain source. Within the sorting tool one or more sources can be placed on a white background, enabling students to orient themselves on the source.

The second time the sorting tool is used, several sources (on the domestication of fire) are put on a background of three concentric squares. Students are asked to sort the sources by cause and consequence, both short-term and long-term, by putting them in certain squares.

The third time the sorting tool is used several sources (on the domestication of crops and animals) are placed on a background with a horizontal timeline. Students need to put the sources in chronological order and after that, study the development of the use of muscle power of both animals and people over time.

The fourth time the sorting tool is used is comparable to the second time. Again there are the three concentric squares and the sorting of sources (this time on natural sources of energy like water and wind) by cause and consequence. In this case putting a source in the outer square, it represents a higher level of complexity in energy use than when a source is put in one of the smaller inner squares. The sorting tool can be used this way to have students look for increasing complexity in developments or for increasing impact (on a geographical scale for example) of a certain development.

The sub-activity that makes use of the prioritizing tool asks students to resize several selected sources in relation to the Malthusian Ceiling. Each source represents a development and not every development has had the same impact on increasing population growth. By resizing the sources and discussing their findings with a partner students are encouraged to think on the (historical) significance) of developments.

Learning Activity

The main aim of this learning activity is to have students think on the possibilities of maintaining the life style in modern (western) society without the energy sources that people have been using since the Industrial Revolution.

At the start of the learning activity students are asked to orient themselves on the Malthusian Ceiling. The central part of the activity consists of three sub-activities, each making use of the sorting tool in combination with a descriptive question. For example: put the sources in chronological order and describe the impact of the domestication of crops and animals on the use of human muscle power. The sources that have been pre-selected include sources on slavery and slave trade, so students can argue that although domestication of animals shifted the use of muscle energy from people to animals to some extent, yet not entirely, especially not in the first decennia after the European expansion.

The three central sub-activities culminate in an evaluative question, asking which development had been most significant in relation to the Malthusian Ceiling. Students discuss this question while making use of the prioritizing tool.

The final question is overarching and demands a more essay-like approach, incorporating all the things the students have studied during the learning activity. Are energy sources from the pre-industrial age, as studied in the activity, a viable alternative for the energy of fossil fuels that are being used on a large scale in modern day society? This question is intentionally complex and does not have one ‘right’ answer. It’s aim is to have students think on alternatives by exploring the past, while thinking on their own future.

Conclusion

The e-learning activity Energy in the pre-industrial world makes use of the Historiana source collection of the same name. It makes use of both the sorting tool and the prioritizing tool of the E-Learning Activity builder. It’s aim have students explore the development of energy use in relation to the Malthusian Ceiling, before the Industrial Revolution and the massive use of fossil fuels started. The main question has students discuss the possibilities and implications of using pre-industrial sources of energy as an alternative to fossil fuels.

On a side note: while this e-learning activity was developed as a stand-alone activity, it can combined with two other e-learning activities: The Subterranean Forest and The Age of Synergies. Especially using this learning activity in conjunction with The Subterranean Forest makes for an added layer. In The Subterranean Forest students explore the possibility, probability and preferability of the use of fossil fuels, while in this activity they look at alternatives to the use of fossil fuels.

The full descriptions on the activities The Subterranean Forest and The Age of Synergies can be found in different blog-posts.

Acknowledgements

Historiana would not be possible without the efforts and generous contributions of historians and educators from Europe and beyond, and the support of the Connecting Europe Facility of the European Union.

Precursors of the Renaissance

This image is a medieval book illustration portraying Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio reading together. They were both major actors in developing the form of Italian humanism which underpinned the Renaissance
Source: British Library via Europeana

This article is the third in a series by EUROCLIO and Europeana providing teachers with ideas and practical resources for teaching a range of topics in their classrooms. You can find a wealth of additional resources including units, source collections and eLearning activities on the Historiana website and you can read the other articles in the series on labs.historiana.eu

Source collection: Precursors of the Renaissance

The Historiana source collection Precursors of the Renaissance consists of a selection of sources that challenge the existing narrative of the European Renaissance that started in the 14th or 15th century in Italy, and was seen as a clear cut break with the medieval times that came before.

The sources in the collection are a mix of explanatory sources that give information on different perspectives on the Renaissance, sources that give examples of scientific progress from the medieval period in Europe, sources that show elements of what is seen as ‘Renaissance’ in the Islamic world that predate the 14th century and sources on so called polymaths that predate Leonardo Da Vinci as (probably) the world’s most famous polymath.

Part of these sources provide evidence of not a break between Antiquity, medieval times and the Renaissance in Europe, but a certain continuity, arguing that the Renaissance did not appear out of thin air, but is to be perceived as an ‘evolution’ instead of a ‘revolution’.

Another part of the sources show that although Europe might have been going through some ‘dark ages’, especially concerning arts and sciences, this certainly was not the case for the entire world, as can be derived from the sources on the Islamic World.

As a whole the source collection Precursors of the Renaissance lends itself to tackle the historical concept of continuity and change, in this case in the context of the European Renaissance.

Aims

The aims of this learning activity for the students are:

  • The student places the European Renaissance in a context of processes in both medieval Europe, as well as the Islamic world.
  • The student describes processes in medieval Europe and explains why they can be seen as precursors to the Renaissance.
  • The student describes processes in the Islamic Golden Age and explains why the can be seen as precursors to the Renaissance.
  • The student discusses what makes someone a polymath and explains why certain historical figures can (or cannot) be seen as polymaths.
  • The student discusses to what extent the European Renaissance can be seen as an evolution when seen in a wider historical context.

E-Learning Activity builder

This e-Learning Activity makes use of both the sorting tool and prioritizing tool from the Historiana e-Learning Activity builder.

The first sub-activity that uses the sorting tool has a background of multiple different timelines. This allows students to first categorise the sources and then place them in chronological order. The timelines run parallel, so they can be used to observe parallel developments or, for example, to switch between scales (think Braudel’s longue durée versus processes and events). In this specific sub-activity students are asked to place historical figures in chronological order, within certain historical developments.

The second sub-activity that uses the sorting tool only has a single timeline on the background. Compared to the previous sub-activity the idea is simple: put the sources in chronological order along the timeline.

The third sub-activity uses the prioritizing tool, with which the students can resize the provided sources. Each source represents an historical figure from the period before the Renaissance. Each of these figures can be seen as a ‘polymath’ (the ‘uomo universale’ from the Renaissance), although not to the same extent. Using the resizing function of the tool students make the sources either larger or smaller, indicating how much a polymath a person was according to them.

Learning Activity

The main aim of this learning activity flows directly from the source collection it uses: challenging the image of the Renaissance as a revolution by looking at historical evidence from the previous centuries and from outside of Europe.

The learning activity is divided in three more or less equal sub-activities and one concluding part.

The first sub-activity has students look at processes, events and people that could be argued to be precursors of the Renaissance in the time between Antiquity and the period that is generally seen as the European Renaissance. After putting the sources in chronological order students are asked to look for and describe continuity and change.

The second sub-activity focuses on sources that are connected to the Islamic World, especially the period that is called the Islamic Golden Age. Students are asked to put the sources in chronological order and to describe how this Golden Age outside of Europe influenced the Renaissance. It is likely the students will get to see this period in the Islamic World as a ‘bridge’ between European Antiquity and the European Renaissance, enabling a continuity in development of arts and sciences, although not entirely in Western Europe.

The third sub-activity focuses on so-called polymaths, the ‘uomo universales’ that are strongly linked with the European Renaissance. Sources that represent prospective polymaths from both medieval Europe and the Islamic Golden Age are provided and students are asked to study these, deciding to what extent the people presented can be seen as polymaths. They are first asked to give their own definition of a polymath and use the criteria they formulate there to weigh the sources. Afterwards they are asked if they consider polymaths to be purely connected with the Renaissance or if they can be seen as a wider phenomenon.

After the three sub-activities students discuss the main question (To what extent can the European Renaissance be considered an evolution instead of a revolution?) with a partner and to summarise their findings, including the evidence they have found throughout the learning activity to support their claim.

Conclusion

The e-learning activity Precursors of the Renaissance makes use of the Historiana source collection of the same name. It makes use of both the sorting tool and the prioritizing tool of the E-Learning Activity builder. Its main aim is to have students discuss if the European Renaissance can be perceived as an evolution instead of the ‘generally accepted view’ of it being a revolution. Students work through several sub-activities on both precursors of the Renaissance in medieval Europe and the Islamic Golden Age, as well as polymaths to gain insight in the main question. Throughout the learning activity they collect evidence they can use to support the claim they choose make at the end: Renaissance: revolution or evolution?

Acknowledgements

Historiana would not be possible without the efforts and generous contributions of historians and educators from Europe and beyond, and the support of the Connecting Europe Facility of the European Union .

The Subterranean Forest

This image shows a landscape from around 300 million years ago in the Carboniferous Period. It shows the vegetation and swap lands that eventually became fossil fuels. Source: “Onze aarde. Handboek der natuurkundige aardrijkskunde … Met 150 platen en 20 kaartjes in afzonderlijken Atlas”, British Library via Europeana

This article is the second in a series by EUROCLIO and Europeana providing teachers with ideas and practical resources for teaching a range of topics in their classrooms. You can find a wealth of additional resources including units, source collections and eLearning activities on the Historiana website and you can read the other articles in the series on labs.historiana.eu

Source collection: The Subterranean Forest

The Historiana source collection The Subterranean Forest consists of sources that describe and explain the origins and usages of the fossil fuels coal, gas and oil and the way these fossil fuels were used in early, pre-industrial, societies. The collection shows different uses for each of the different fossil fuels in the ages before the Industrial Revolution.

One of the aspects that stands out here is the enormous amount of time it takes for organic matter to transform into coal, gas and oil and the way it contrasts with the (extremely) short time it takes to ‘use them up’ as fuel. This was certainly not something people put much thought into the pre-industrial word, and not even during the Industrial Revolution. The exponential increase in the use of fossil fuels over the past two hundred years has forced us to take a different perspective, both on an economical and an environmental level. This is what was chosen as the core thought of the e-Learning Activity: have students compare and contrast both the origins usage of fossil fuels, as well as the speed in which fossil fuels are ‘used up’ over time.

Aims

The aims of this learning activity for the students are:

  • The student describes how the fossil fuels coal, gas and oil originated.
  • The student explains why people started using fossil fuels.
  • The student describes the use of fossil fuels in modern day society.
  • The student discusses if the use of fossil fuels in the long term is possible, probable and preferable.
Coal reserves were found and mined across Britain in the 1200s. By 1700, mine shafts all over the country reached as deep as 200 metres. In many cases, mines breached the water level and considerable animal and human muscle energy was dedicated to removing water from the shafts. Muscle energy was needed to haul the coal from the mines. This can be seen in the image. Horses and humans are turning systems of pulleys to retrieve material from the mine. Source: A mine: cross-sections and a horse powered wheel. Etching by Bénard after Goussier – Louis-Jacques Goussier. Wellcome Collection via Europeana

E-Learning Activity builder

This e-Learning Activity makes use of the sorting tool from the Historiana e-Learning Activity builder in three sub-activities. These activities are question-driven and help the student orientate on the sources, compare the sources and get a grasp of the timescale that is concerned with fossil fuels.

In the first sorting sub-activity students are asked to sort the sources by putting them on either left or the right side of the screen, sorting them in the categories ‘origination’ and ‘usage’ of fossil fuels, which can be done rather objectively.

In the second sorting sub-activity students are asked again to sort sources by putting them on the left or the right side of the screen, but now the question is more subjective, because they sort by ‘advantages’ and ‘disadvantages’ of fossil fuels.

In the third sorting sub-activity the students are asked to put the sources on a relative timeline, which aims to show that the process of origination takes hundred thousands to millions of years (on the left side of the timeline), while the fossil fuels are used up in the relative ‘blink of an eye’ (on the far right side of the timeline).

Learning Activity

As said the main aim of the learning activity is to have students take a step-by-step look at the origin and use of fossil fuels and the implications of that use both in ages past and our modern times. The sub-activities are merely steps, interlaced with questions on different taxonomical levels (from describing to evaluating). By working through each of the sub-activities, answering the questions and discussing his or her findings with a partner, students gain evidence which they need to provide when taking a position in the overarching discussion: are fossil fuels the key to the future?

The answers to this question can, of course, be very divergent, yet students should arrive to similar conclusions during the sub-activities, for example that the rate at which fossil fuels are being used means they are being used up way faster than they can be replenished (which in most cases takes longer than the entire span of current human existence on Earth). Another sub-conclusion can be that fossil fuels a certain amount of energy on which we as humans have come to depend for our current standard of living, to which most people have grown quite attached. To keep up that standard we either need to keep using fossil fuels or come up with economically attractive alternatives, which might not be easy in the short run.

Conclusion

The e-learning activity The Subterranean Forest makes use of the Historiana source collection of the same name and relies on the sorting tool of the eLearning Activity builder. It’s aim is to help students compare and contrast sources on fossil fuels and reach an evidence-based conclusion on the possibility, probability and preferability of the use of fossil fuels in the (near) future, taking into account different perspectives and the historical development of the use of coal, gas and oil.


Please note that while this e-learning activity was developed as a stand-alone activity, it can be used in combination with two other e-learning activities: The Age of Synergies and Energy in the pre-industrial world. These activities will be described in separate blog posts, yet share the common theme of energy usage before and after the Industrial Revolution.


Acknowledgements

Historiana would not be possible without the efforts and generous contributions of historians and educators from Europe and beyond, and the support of the Connecting Europe Facility of the European Union.